While the word "targum" means translation in general, it usually refers to the Aramaic translations of the Hebrew Bible. After the Babylonian exile, most Jews spoke Aramaic as their first language, so translation became necessary to understand the Biblical readings. Many of the Targum contained interpretations or explanatory notes in addition to the literal translation.

This body of work includes:

  • Targum Onkelos, also known as the Babylonian Targum
  • Targum Yerushalmi, also known as Targum Pseudo-Jonathan (Torah only)
  • Targum Jonathan (Torah, prophets and some parts of the hagiographa)
  • Targum Neophyti
  • Targum Sheni (on the scroll of Esther)
  • Targum to Job

Finding Targum in the catalog

Do a title browse search under the part of the Bible you want, and add Aramaic and the name of the Targum. For example:
Bible. O.T. Pentateuch. Aramaic Onkelos

Finding Targum online

Bar Ilan Responsa Project
Includes the Hebrew texts of the Tanakh, Talmuds, early commentaries, and many responsa http://www.responsa.co.il/
More options are available to HUC students and faculty by accessing the Responsa Project through the Jewish Studies Portal

The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon (CAL) at HUC-JIR Cincinnati
Complete online texts of all Jewish Aramaic resources, talmudic, midrashic, and targumic, along with a complete set of research tools for Targumic studies http://cal1.cn.huc.edu
You can search by Biblical verse and see all the Targum versions of that verse.

Translations at the Newsletter for Targumic and Cognate Studies
Includes the Translation of Onkelos and Pseudo-Jonathan by J.W. Etheridge;Translation of Targum Psalms by Edward M. Cook; Translation of the Targum to Ruth by Samson H. Levey; and Translation of the Targum to Shir HaShirim by Jay C. Treat.

Translation of the Targum to Lamentations
Translated by C. M. M. Brady http://targum.info/meg/tglam.htm

While the Library thinks that these sites are useful, their content is not under our control and may express views that are not shared by the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion.

If you have any further questions about finding information on this, or any other topic, ask your local HUC-JIR librarian or email us using the form on the campus library homepage.

Recommended websites


Targum to Lamentations

Translated by C.M. M. Brady, this text is based upon the text of MS Urb. 1

Translations at the Newsletter for Targumic and Cognate Studies

Includes the Translations