"Tractate Qinnim: Between Margins and Center" - Abstract by Rabbi Dr. Dalia Marx
by Rabbi Dr. Dalia Marx, Assistant Professor of Liturgy and Midrash at HUC-JIR
The notion of "marginality" usually brings to mind thoughts of exclusion and disavowal. Marginality may, however, embody unexpected opportunities. Tractate Qinnim, the last and smallest tractate of Qodashim order in the Mishnah is such a case.
Tractate Qinnim of the Mishnah deals with the fowl sacrifice, or, to put it more precisely, it deals with special complications that can occur in connection with that sacrifice. The tractate is marginal in more than one way.
The tractate's laws are almost always set out in terms of women bringing offerings, for example: "Two women, this one has two pairs of birds and the other one has two pairs of birds…" (2:2). One might say that the "Reuven" (the ubiquitous character of Talmudic case law) of this tractate is a "Dinah”. Many have claimed this is so because the standard bringer of sacrifices in the tractate is a woman, since most of the fowl-offerings were made by women (after birth or because they suffered discharges). However, I will try to demonstrate that there may be something inherently feminine about this sacrifice itself.
The Mishnah reflects a depiction of the Temple times in which, even if women had a marginal role in the activities of the Temple, and even if their participation in the Temple rites invited mixed reactions, they did have a valid connection with it; they visited the Temple and actively participated in its rites. This is, in fact, the most feminine tractate in the entire Mishnah. Other tractates (Niddah, for example) deal with topics which are inherently feminine, while here the Sages decided to lay out the rules of the fowl offering (which is obligatory upon both men and women –in different circumstance) almost entirely in terms of examples involving women!
While marginal and theoretical, Qinnim opens a door for the empowerment of women, brings them into the public space and makes their voices heard.
Founded in 1875, Hebrew Union College–Jewish Institute of Religion is the nation’s oldest institution of higher Jewish education and the academic, spiritual, and professional leadership development center of Reform Judaism. HUC-JIR educates men and women for service to American and world Jewry as rabbis, cantors, educators, and nonprofit management professionals, and offers graduate programs to scholars and clergy of all faiths. With centers of learning in Cincinnati, Jerusalem, Los Angeles, and New York, HUC-JIR’s scholarly resources comprise the renowned Klau Library, The Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives, research institutes and centers, and academic publications. In partnership with the Union for Reform Judaism and the Central Conference of American Rabbis, HUC-JIR sustains the Reform Movement’s congregations and professional and lay leaders. HUC-JIR’s campuses invite the community to cultural and educational programs illuminating Jewish history, identity, art, and archaeology, and fostering interfaith and multiethnic understanding.